Related Conditions and Treatments
Aortic Valve Stenosis
Learn more about Aortic valve stenosis treatment, symptoms, and diagnosis. Request an appointment with experts at Boston Children's at 617-355-5637.
Bladder Exstrophy and Epispadias
Bladder exstrophy is a rare birth defect involving the urinary, reproductive, and intestinal tracts, as well as the musculoskeletal system. Learn more from Boston Children's Hospital.
A cervical teratoma is a very rare congenital tumor in the neck.
Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate
A child with a cleft lip has a visible separation in the skin of their top lip. A child with cleft palate has incomplete development of the soft and/or hard palate.
A cloacal deformity is an anorectal malformation that occurs while a female fetus is developing in its mother's womb.
Clubfoot is a congenital foot deformity in which the foot turns down and inward.
Down syndrome is a genetic condition characterized by developmental delays and learning disability.
Esophageal atresia (EA) is a rare birth defect in which a baby is born without part of the esophagus (the tube that connects the mouth to the stomach).
Fetal echocardiography is an ultrasound test performed on a pregnant woman to evaluate the heart of her unborn baby.
Fetal surgery is the surgical treatment of a fetus with certain life-threatening congenital abnormalities.
Gastroschisis is an opening in the abdominal wall that appears during fetal development.
Hydronephrosis isn’t a specific diagnosis. Instead, it’s a finding that shows that urine is overfilling the kidney.
Karyotype, Extended Banding, and Fluorescent in Situ Hybridization
Learn more about karyotype, extended banding chromosome studies, fluorescent in situ hybridization, and chromosomal microarray from Boston Children's Hospital.
A lymphatic malformation is a sponge-like collection of abnormal growths that contain clear fluid.
An omphalocele is a congenital abnormality in which some of the abdominal organs of an infant protrude through an opening in the muscles near the umbilical cord.
A prenatal ultrasound scan is a diagnostic technique that uses high-frequency sound waves to create an image of your fetus.
Robin sequence (aka Pierre Robin sequence) is a combination of facial differences that are present at birth.
Sacrococcygeal Teratoma (SCT)
A sacrococcygeal teratoma (SCT) is a benign tumor that develops at the base of your child's coccyx (tailbone).
Skeletal dysplasia is a category of rare genetic disorders that cause abnormal development of a baby’s bones, joints, and cartilage.
Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF)
Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is a serious congenital heart defect where the heart’s anatomy prevents enough oxygen-poor (blue) blood from flowing to the lungs to receive oxygen.
Twin Reversed Arterial Perfusion (TRAP)
Twin reversed arterial perfusion (TRAP) occurs in identical twin pregnancies when one twin has an absent or non-functioning heart and receives all of its blood from the normally functioning and developing pump twin.
Twin-Twin Transfusion Syndrome (TTTS)
Twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) is a problem where one fetus — the donor twin — pumps blood to the other fetus — the recipient twin.
Ureteroceles are birth defects that occur in approximately 1 out of every 2,000 babies.