Anna Aldovini has a long-standing interest in the molecular biology of HIV and AIDS. The two goals of the laboratory are to improve understanding of HIV host-pathogen interactions and to develop new approaches to HIV/AIDS vaccines.

The approaches to vaccine development that have emerged from her laboratory aim at establishing an immunization regimen capable of stimulating both systemic and mucosal humoral and cell mediated immunity. Ongoing experiments are evaluating the effectiveness of mucosal DNA vaccination administered via different routes, how vaccine-induced immunity can be improved, and how an immunization regimen that involves different mucosal and systemic routes can provide high levels of systemic and mucosal responses within the same animal and contribute to protection from AIDS. The results of should be important not only for an AIDS vaccine development but also for the development of DNA vaccines for other mucosal pathogens.

Studies in the area of HIV host-pathogen interactions are focused on investigating the issue of persistent immune activation during suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART). Pharmacological intervention to reduce immune activation have been explored and the lab is interested in investigating the cause of persistent immune activation during ART, and more specifically to evaluate whether additional reservoir sources of HIV and SIV, originating from cells different than resting CD4+ T-cells, contribute to viral rebound after ART interruption.


Dr. Aldovini obtained her MD from the University of Padua Medical School, Italy, where she also did her residency in Oncology. Subsequently she was a Fogarty Fellow at the N.I.H. in Bethesda, MD, and then a Research Scientist at the Whitehead Institute, Cambridge, MA.


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  1. Response to a massive SARS-CoV-2 infection in a nursing home transformed into a caring center. Aging Clin Exp Res. 2021 Jan 28. View abstract
  2. Comparative Evaluation of Prophylactic SIV Vaccination Modalities Administered to the Oral Cavity. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2020 12; 36(12):984-997. View abstract
  3. Mucosal Vaccine Approaches for Prevention of HIV and SIV Transmission. Curr Immunol Rev. 2019; 15(1):102-122. View abstract
  4. Inhibition of p38 MAPK in combination with ART reduces SIV-induced immune activation and provides additional protection from immune system deterioration. PLoS Pathog. 2018 08; 14(8):e1007268. View abstract
  5. Mucosal Vaccination for Prevention of HIV Infection and AIDS. Curr HIV Res. 2016; 14(3):247-59. View abstract
  6. HIV-1 Tat second exon limits the extent of Tat-mediated modulation of interferon-stimulated genes in antigen presenting cells. Retrovirology. 2014 Apr 17; 11:30. View abstract
  7. Resistance to infection, early and persistent suppression of simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac251 viremia, and significant reduction of tissue viral burden after mucosal vaccination in female rhesus macaques. J Virol. 2014 Jan; 88(1):212-24. View abstract
  8. Tat engagement of p38 MAP kinase and IRF7 pathways leads to activation of interferon-stimulated genes in antigen-presenting cells. Blood. 2013 May 16; 121(20):4090-100. View abstract
  9. Immunogenicity of a vaccine regimen composed of simian immunodeficiency virus DNA, rMVA, and viral particles administered to female rhesus macaques via four different mucosal routes. J Virol. 2013 Apr; 87(8):4738-50. View abstract
  10. Long-term control of simian immunodeficiency virus mac251 viremia to undetectable levels in half of infected female rhesus macaques nasally vaccinated with simian immunodeficiency virus DNA/recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara. J Immunol. 2011 Mar 15; 186(6):3581-93. View abstract
  11. Association of Tat with promoters of PTEN and PP2A subunits is key to transcriptional activation of apoptotic pathways in HIV-infected CD4+ T cells. PLoS Pathog. 2010 Sep 16; 6(9):e1001103. View abstract
  12. Nasal DNA-MVA SIV vaccination provides more significant protection from progression to AIDS than a similar intramuscular vaccination. Mucosal Immunol. 2009 Nov; 2(6):536-50. View abstract
  13. Unsung hero Robert C. Gallo. Science. 2009 Jan 09; 323(5911):206-7. View abstract
  14. Tat-induced FOXO3a is a key mediator of apoptosis in HIV-1-infected human CD4+ T lymphocytes. J Immunol. 2008 Dec 15; 181(12):8460-77. View abstract
  15. DNA-MVA vaccine protection after X4 SHIV challenge in macaques correlates with day-of-challenge antiviral CD4+ cell-mediated immunity levels and postchallenge preservation of CD4+ T cell memory. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2008 Mar; 24(3):505-19. View abstract
  16. Human and simian immunodeficiency virus-mediated upregulation of the apoptotic factor TRAIL occurs in antigen-presenting cells from AIDS-susceptible but not from AIDS-resistant species. J Virol. 2007 Jul; 81(14):7584-97. View abstract
  17. An SHIV DNA/MVA rectal vaccination in macaques provides systemic and mucosal virus-specific responses and protection against AIDS. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2004 Aug; 20(8):846-59. View abstract
  18. Control of simian/human immunodeficiency virus viremia and disease progression after IL-2-augmented DNA-modified vaccinia virus Ankara nasal vaccination in nonhuman primates. J Immunol. 2004 Mar 15; 172(6):3745-57. View abstract
  19. Nucleocapsid-RNA interactions are essential to structural stability but not to assembly of retroviruses. J Virol. 2004 Jan; 78(2):716-23. View abstract
  20. The simian immunodeficiency virus 5' untranslated leader sequence plays a role in intracellular viral protein accumulation and in RNA packaging. J Virol. 2003 Jun; 77(11):6284-92. View abstract
  21. HIV-1 Tat reprograms immature dendritic cells to express chemoattractants for activated T cells and macrophages. Nat Med. 2003 Feb; 9(2):191-7. View abstract
  22. RNA incorporation is critical for retroviral particle integrity after cell membrane assembly of Gag complexes. J Virol. 2002 Dec; 76(23):11853-65. View abstract
  23. Functional analysis of the murine sarcoma virus RNA packaging sequence. J Virol. 2002 May; 76(9):4643-8. View abstract
  24. Human immunodeficiency virus nucleocapsid protein polymorphisms modulate the infectivity of RNA packaging mutants. Virology. 2002 Mar 15; 294(2):282-8. View abstract
  25. Variation in the assessment of adequacy in cervical smears. Cytopathology. 2001 Dec; 12(6):377-82. View abstract
  26. [Personnel training for a population screening program for cervical carcinoma]. Pathologica. 2001 Jun; 93(3):233-41. View abstract
  27. Effective induction of simian immunodeficiency virus-specific systemic and mucosal immune responses in primates by vaccination with proviral DNA producing intact but noninfectious virions. J Virol. 2000 Nov; 74(22):10514-22. View abstract
  28. Immune responses induced by BCG recombinant for human papillomavirus L1 and E7 proteins. Vaccine. 2000 May 08; 18(22):2444-53. View abstract
  29. The kinetics of specific immune responses in rhesus monkeys inoculated with live recombinant BCG expressing SIV Gag, Pol, Env, and Nef proteins. Virology. 2000 Mar 01; 268(1):94-103. View abstract
  30. Nucleocapsid and matrix protein contributions to selective human immunodeficiency virus type 1 genomic RNA packaging. J Virol. 1998 Mar; 72(3):1983-93. View abstract
  31. Impact of the Pathfinder in a cytology laboratory. Acta Cytol. 1997 Jan-Feb; 41(1):166-72. View abstract
  32. Charged amino acid residues of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 nucleocapsid p7 protein involved in RNA packaging and infectivity. J Virol. 1996 Oct; 70(10):6607-16. View abstract
  33. Manipulation and potentiation of antimycobacterial immunity using recombinant bacille Calmette-Guérin strains that secrete cytokines. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996 Jan 23; 93(2):934-9. View abstract
  34. Naturally processed viral peptides recognized by cytotoxic T lymphocytes on cells chronically infected by human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J Exp Med. 1994 Oct 01; 180(4):1283-93. View abstract
  35. Recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG secreting functional interleukin-2 enhances gamma interferon production by splenocytes. Infect Immun. 1994 Jun; 62(6):2508-14. View abstract
  36. The uraA locus and homologous recombination in Mycobacterium bovis BCG. J Bacteriol. 1993 Nov; 175(22):7282-9. View abstract
  37. Humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to live recombinant BCG-HIV vaccines. Nature. 1991 Jun 06; 351(6326):479-82. View abstract
  38. New AIDS vaccine candidates: antigen delivery and design. AIDS. 1991; 5 Suppl 2:S151-8. View abstract
  39. Studies of cloned simian immunodeficiency virus-specific T lymphocytes. gag-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes exhibit a restricted epitope specificity. J Immunol. 1990 May 01; 144(9):3385-91. View abstract
  40. Mutations of RNA and protein sequences involved in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 packaging result in production of noninfectious virus. J Virol. 1990 May; 64(5):1920-6. View abstract
  41. Development of a BCG recombinant vehicle for candidate AIDS vaccines. Int Rev Immunol. 1990; 7(1):79-83. View abstract
  42. Long-term culture and fine specificity of human cytotoxic T-lymphocyte clones reactive with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989 Dec; 86(23):9514-8. View abstract
  43. Envelope sequences of two new United States HIV-1 isolates. Virology. 1988 Jun; 164(2):531-6. View abstract
  44. Spectrum of natural antibodies against five HTLV-III antigens in infected individuals: correlation of antibody prevalence with clinical status. Blood. 1987 Feb; 69(2):437-41. View abstract
  45. HTLV-III expression and production involve complex regulation at the levels of splicing and translation of viral RNA. Cell. 1986 Sep 12; 46(6):807-17. View abstract
  46. Synthesis of the complete trans-activation gene product of human T-lymphotropic virus type III in Escherichia coli: demonstration of immunogenicity in vivo and expression in vitro. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986 Sep; 83(18):6672-6. View abstract
  47. Differential response to the cytopathic effects of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III) superinfection in T4+ (helper) and T8+ (suppressor) T-cell clones transformed by HTLV-I. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986 Jun; 83(12):4297-301. View abstract
  48. The trans-activator gene of HTLV-III is essential for virus replication. Nature. 1986 Mar 27-Apr 2; 320(6060):367-71. View abstract
  49. Molecular analysis of a deletion mutant provirus of type I human T-cell lymphotropic virus: evidence for a doubly spliced x-lor mRNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986 Jan; 83(1):38-42. View abstract
  50. Immortalization of human T lymphocytes by HTLV-I: phenotypic characteristics of target cells and kinetics of virus integration and expression. Leuk Res. 1986; 10(9):1109-20. View abstract
  51. trans-Activation of the human T-cell leukemia virus long terminal repeat correlates with expression of the x-lor protein. J Virol. 1985 Sep; 55(3):831-5. View abstract
  52. Clonal selection of T lymphocytes infected by cell-free human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus type I: parameters of virus integration and expression. Virology. 1985 Jun; 143(2):640-5. View abstract
  53. Short- and long-term studies on chemical carcinogenesis in BALB/Mo mice. Toxicol Pathol. 1984; 12(4):361-8. View abstract
  54. Different susceptibility of BALB/Mo and BALB/c mice to cytogenetic damage induced by urethan. Tumori. 1983 Oct 31; 69(5):387-90. View abstract