My lab investigates aberrant cranial motor neuron development by identifying human congenital disorders of eye and face movement, defining their genetic etiologies, and uncovering their molecular pathways and disease mechanisms. Cranial motor neurons provide a unique and powerful system to study neuronal connectivity because of the small number of motor neurons within distinct nuclei and the straightforward tractable trajectories of their axons that can be visualized in three dimensions. Moreover, errors in their development result in visible, reproducible human phenotypes that consistently translate to mouse and zebrafish models.

Our research focuses on genes essential to the development of the cranial nerves, a diverse group of sensory and motor nerves originating in the brain that control our ability to see, hear, taste, smell and carry out a number of other essential functions. Mutations in these genes can cause complex eye-movement disorders, facial weakness, deafness, loss of smell (anosmia), and difficulties with swallowing and respiration. Some individuals with these symptoms may also have other motor, sensory, intellectual, behavioral and social disabilities. My lab has defined the clinical manifestations and identified the genetic causes of a series of such disorders, now referred to as the congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders (CCDDs), including: congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles (CFEOM) types 1-3, Duane syndrome, Duane radial ray syndrome, horizontal gaze palsy, and atypical forms of Moebius syndrome. These disorders can result from mutations in genes critical to motor neuron development or that alter the ability of the axon to grow normally, resulting in stalled growth or inappropriate guidance. We have also identified several disorders that selectively impair the development of extraocular or facial muscle.

Major projects in the lab include (1) interpretation of >900 whole genome sequences from families with congenital disorders of eye and face movement, focusing on noncoding and structural variation as well as coding variants; (2) functional and mechanistic studies of genetic variants and their normal and abnormal proteins using mouse and zebrafish modeling, stem cell differentiation to the cell types of interest, and in vitro approaches, (3) studies of embryonic wildtype and mutant cranial motor neurons through single cell RNA sequencing, in situ studies, and mouse and zebrafish gene manipulations. These studies are defining: how these motor neurons acquire distinct identities, form cranial nuclei and subnuclei, and target specific cranial musculature; how these processes are disrupted in human development resulting in birth defects; and why these motor neurons are selectively vulnerable to or spared in specific neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders.


Elizabeth Engle is a Professor of Neurology and Ophthalmology at Harvard Medical School, an Investigator of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, and an Associate Member of the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard. At Boston Children's Hospital, she is a member of the Departments of Neurology, Ophthalmology and Medicine (Genetics), a member of the F.M. Kirby Neurobiology Center and the Program in Genomics, and a senior investigator for The Manton Center for Orphan Disease Research. Dr. Engle received her B.A from Middlebury College and her M.D. from Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. She trained in pediatrics at Johns Hopkins, in neuropathology at Massachusetts General Hospital, and in adult and child neurology in the Longwood Neurology Training Program and at Boston Children's Hospital. Following her residencies, she was a research fellow with Louis Kunkel, Ph.D., and later Alan Beggs, Ph.D., in the Division of Genetics at Children's prior to establishing her own research lab in 1997. Her work has defined the human congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders and has been recognized by high-profile publications and by receipt of multiple honors, including the E. Mead Johnson Award for Research in Pediatrics from the Society for Pediatric Research, the Sidney Carter Award in Child Neurology from the American Academy of Neurology, and a Research Award for Vision from the Alcon Institute. In addition to her research, Dr. Engle continues to care for patients, primarily consulting for children and adults with rare eye and facial movement disorders and other cranial nerve disorders. She teaches in both the clinical and laboratory settings, and has served on multiple committees that set the direction for neuroscience and ophthalmology research locally and nationally.


Publications powered by Harvard Catalyst Profiles

  1. Differentiating Moebius syndrome and other congenital facial weakness disorders with electrodiagnostic studies. Muscle Nerve. 2021 Jan 02. View abstract
  2. KIF21A pathogenic variants cause congenital fibrosis of extraocular muscles type 3. Ophthalmic Genet. 2020 Nov 29; 1-5. View abstract
  3. Recurrent Rare Copy Number Variants Increase Risk for Esotropia. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2020 08 03; 61(10):22. View abstract
  4. Brain phenotyping in Moebius syndrome and other congenital facial weakness disorders by diffusion MRI morphometry. Brain Commun. 2020; 2(1):fcaa014. View abstract
  5. Isolation and Culture of Oculomotor, Trochlear, and Spinal Motor Neurons from Prenatal Islmn:GFP Transgenic Mice. J Vis Exp. 2019 11 12; (153). View abstract
  6. Etv1 Controls the Establishment of Non-overlapping Motor Innervation of Neighboring Facial Muscles during Development. Cell Rep. 2019 10 08; 29(2):437-452.e4. View abstract
  7. Outcomes of strabismus surgery in genetically confirmed congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles. J AAPOS. 2019 10; 23(5):253.e1-253.e6. View abstract
  8. Decreased ACKR3 (CXCR7) function causes oculomotor synkinesis in mice and humans. Hum Mol Genet. 2019 09 15; 28(18):3113-3125. View abstract
  9. MAGEL2-related disorders: A study and case series. Clin Genet. 2019 12; 96(6):493-505. View abstract
  10. Deleterious de novo variants of X-linked ZC4H2 in females cause a variable phenotype with neurogenic arthrogryposis multiplex congenita. Hum Mutat. 2019 12; 40(12):2270-2285. View abstract
  11. Phenotype delineation of ZNF462 related syndrome. Am J Med Genet A. 2019 10; 179(10):2075-2082. View abstract
  12. Altered White Matter Organization in the TUBB3 E410K Syndrome. Cereb Cortex. 2019 07 22; 29(8):3561-3576. View abstract
  13. Ex Vivo Oculomotor Slice Culture from Embryonic GFP-Expressing Mice for Time-Lapse Imaging of Oculomotor Nerve Outgrowth. J Vis Exp. 2019 07 16; (149). View abstract
  14. Congenital monocular elevation deficiency associated with a novel TUBB3 gene variant. Br J Ophthalmol. 2020 04; 104(4):547-550. View abstract
  15. The Liberfarb syndrome, a multisystem disorder affecting eye, ear, bone, and brain development, is caused by a founder pathogenic variant in thePISD gene. Genet Med. 2019 12; 21(12):2734-2743. View abstract
  16. Stem cell-derived cranial and spinal motor neurons reveal proteostatic differences between ALS resistant and sensitive motor neurons. Elife. 2019 06 03; 8. View abstract
  17. Correction to: 33rd Annual Meeting & Pre-Conference Programs of the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC 2018). J Immunother Cancer. 2019 Feb 13; 7(1):46. View abstract
  18. MACF1 Mutations Encoding Highly Conserved Zinc-Binding Residues of the GAR Domain Cause Defects in Neuronal Migration and Axon Guidance. Am J Hum Genet. 2018 12 06; 103(6):1009-1021. View abstract
  19. Loss of CXCR4/CXCL12 Signaling Causes Oculomotor Nerve Misrouting and Development of Motor Trigeminal to Oculomotor Synkinesis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2018 10 01; 59(12):5201-5209. View abstract
  20. Neuronal-Specific TUBB3 Is Not Required for Normal Neuronal Function but Is Essential for Timely Axon Regeneration. Cell Rep. 2018 08 14; 24(7):1865-1879.e9. View abstract
  21. Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies a Susceptibility Locus for Comitant Esotropia and Suggests a Parent-of-Origin Effect. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2018 08 01; 59(10):4054-4064. View abstract
  22. Recessive MYF5 Mutations Cause External Ophthalmoplegia, Rib, and Vertebral Anomalies. Am J Hum Genet. 2018 07 05; 103(1):115-124. View abstract
  23. DCC mutation update: Congenital mirror movements, isolated agenesis of the corpus callosum, and developmental split brain syndrome. Hum Mutat. 2018 01; 39(1):23-39. View abstract
  24. Cerebral Vein Malformations Result from Loss of Twist1 Expression and BMP Signaling from Skull Progenitor Cells and Dura. Dev Cell. 2017 09 11; 42(5):445-461.e5. View abstract
  25. Identification of STAC3 variants in non-Native American families with overlapping features of Carey-Fineman-Ziter syndrome and Moebius syndrome. . 2017 Oct; 173(10):2763-2771. View abstract
  26. Ocular congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders (CCDDs): insights into axon growth and guidance. Hum Mol Genet. 2017 08 01; 26(R1):R37-R44. View abstract
  27. A defect in myoblast fusion underlies Carey-Fineman-Ziter syndrome. Nat Commun. 2017 07 06; 8:16077. View abstract
  28. Ocular Motor Nerve Development in the Presence and Absence of Extraocular Muscle. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2017 04 01; 58(4):2388-2396. View abstract
  29. Mutant a2-chimaerin signals via bidirectional ephrin pathways in Duane retraction syndrome. J Clin Invest. 2017 May 01; 127(5):1664-1682. View abstract
  30. Biallelic mutations in human DCC cause developmental split-brain syndrome. Nat Genet. 2017 Apr; 49(4):606-612. View abstract
  31. Loss of MAFB Function in Humans and Mice Causes Duane Syndrome, Aberrant Extraocular Muscle Innervation, and Inner-Ear Defects. Am J Hum Genet. 2016 06 02; 98(6):1220-1227. View abstract
  32. Overlapping 16p13.11 deletion and gain of copies variations associated with childhood onset psychosis include genes with mechanistic implications for autism associated pathways: Two case reports. . 2016 May; 170A(5):1165-73. View abstract
  33. Two unique TUBB3 mutations cause both CFEOM3 and malformations of cortical development. . 2016 Feb; 170A(2):297-305. View abstract
  34. Expanding the phenotypic spectrum and variability of endocrine abnormalities associated with TUBB3 E410K syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015 Mar; 100(3):E473-7. View abstract
  35. Menkes disease in affected females: the clinical disease spectrum. . 2015 Feb; 167A(2):417-20. View abstract
  36. Retinal Dysfunction in Patients with Congenital Fibrosis of the Extraocular Muscles Type 2. Ophthalmic Genet. 2016 06; 37(2):130-6. View abstract
  37. Human CFEOM1 mutations attenuate KIF21A autoinhibition and cause oculomotor axon stalling. Neuron. 2014 Apr 16; 82(2):334-49. View abstract
  38. Diagnostic distinctions and genetic analysis of patients diagnosed with moebius syndrome. Ophthalmology. 2014 Jul; 121(7):1461-8. View abstract
  39. Pontine malformation, undecussated pyramidal tracts, and regional polymicrogyria: a new syndrome. Pediatr Neurol. 2014 Apr; 50(4):384-8. View abstract
  40. RYR1 mutations as a cause of ophthalmoplegia, facial weakness, and malignant hyperthermia. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2013 Dec; 131(12):1532-40. View abstract
  41. Complex cytogenetic rearrangements at the DURS1 locus in syndromic Duane retraction syndrome. Clin Case Rep. 2013 10 01; 1(1). View abstract
  42. The genetic basis of incomitant strabismus: consolidation of the current knowledge of the genetic foundations of disease. Semin Ophthalmol. 2013 Sep-Nov; 28(5-6):427-37. View abstract
  43. Autosomal-dominant nystagmus, foveal hypoplasia and presenile cataract associated with a novel PAX6 mutation. Eur J Hum Genet. 2014 Mar; 22(3):344-9. View abstract
  44. Expanding the phenotypic spectrum of ECEL1-related congenital contracture syndromes. Clin Genet. 2014 Jun; 85(6):562-7. View abstract
  45. A novel syndrome caused by the E410K amino acid substitution in the neuronal ß-tubulin isotype 3. Brain. 2013 Feb; 136(Pt 2):522-35. View abstract
  46. An inherited TUBB2B mutation alters a kinesin-binding site and causes polymicrogyria, CFEOM and axon dysinnervation. Hum Mol Genet. 2012 Dec 15; 21(26):5484-99. View abstract
  47. HOXB1 founder mutation in humans recapitulates the phenotype of Hoxb1-/- mice. Am J Hum Genet. 2012 Jul 13; 91(1):171-9. View abstract
  48. Spatiotemporal expression pattern of KIF21A during normal embryonic development and in congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles type 1 (CFEOM1). Gene Expr Patterns. 2012 May-Jun; 12(5-6):180-8. View abstract
  49. Human disorders of axon guidance. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2012 Oct; 22(5):837-43. View abstract
  50. Ocular manifestations (strabismus: duane syndrome; and retinal nerve fiber hypoplasia) in okihiro syndrome (duane radial ray syndrome). Binocul Vis Strabolog Q Simms Romano. 2012; 27(4):235-42. View abstract
  51. Crystalline cataract caused by a heterozygous missense mutation in ?D-crystallin (CRYGD). Mol Vis. 2011; 17:3333-8. View abstract
  52. Wildervanck's syndrome and mirror movements: a congenital disorder of axon migration? J Neurol. 2012 Apr; 259(4):761-3. View abstract
  53. Expansion of the CHN1 strabismus phenotype. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011 Aug 11; 52(9):6321-8. View abstract
  54. Two novel CHN1 mutations in 2 families with Duane retraction syndrome. Arch Ophthalmol. 2011 May; 129(5):649-52. View abstract
  55. Structural grading of foveal hypoplasia using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography a predictor of visual acuity? Ophthalmology. 2011 Aug; 118(8):1653-60. View abstract
  56. Recent progress in understanding congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders. J Neuroophthalmol. 2011 Mar; 31(1):69-77. View abstract
  57. Phenotypic spectrum of the tubulin-related disorders and functional implications of disease-causing mutations. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2011 Jun; 21(3):286-94. View abstract
  58. Allelic diversity in human developmental neurogenetics: insights into biology and disease. Neuron. 2010 Oct 21; 68(2):245-53. View abstract
  59. KIF21A mutations in two Chinese families with congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles (CFEOM). Mol Vis. 2010 Oct 13; 16:2062-70. View abstract
  60. Deletions of NRXN1 (neurexin-1) predispose to a wide spectrum of developmental disorders. . 2010 Jun 05; 153B(4):937-47. View abstract
  61. Distinct alpha- and beta-tubulin isotypes are required for the positioning, differentiation and survival of neurons: new support for the 'multi-tubulin' hypothesis. Biosci Rep. 2010 Apr 15; 30(5):319-30. View abstract
  62. Evidence of an asymmetrical endophenotype in congenital fibrosis of extraocular muscles type 3 resulting from TUBB3 mutations. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010 Sep; 51(9):4600-11. View abstract
  63. Human genetic disorders of axon guidance. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2010 Mar; 2(3):a001784. View abstract
  64. HOXA1 mutations are not a common cause of Möbius syndrome. J AAPOS. 2010 Feb; 14(1):78-80. View abstract
  65. Human TUBB3 mutations perturb microtubule dynamics, kinesin interactions, and axon guidance. Cell. 2010 Jan 08; 140(1):74-87. View abstract
  66. CHN1 mutations are not a common cause of sporadic Duane's retraction syndrome. . 2010 Jan; 152A(1):215-7. View abstract
  67. Synergistic divergence: a distinct ocular motility dysinnervation pattern. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009 Nov; 50(11):5213-6. View abstract
  68. Clinical features associated with an I126M alpha2-chimaerin mutation in a family with autosomal-dominant Duane retraction syndrome. J AAPOS. 2009 Jun; 13(3):245-8. View abstract
  69. Congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles type 1, distinctive conjunctival changes and intrapapillary disc colobomata. Ophthalmic Genet. 2009 Jun; 30(2):91-5. View abstract
  70. Human CHN1 mutations hyperactivate alpha2-chimaerin and cause Duane's retraction syndrome. Science. 2008 Aug 08; 321(5890):839-43. View abstract
  71. The clinical spectrum of homozygous HOXA1 mutations. . 2008 May 15; 146A(10):1235-40. View abstract
  72. Magnetic resonance imaging of the endophenotype of a novel familial Möbius-like syndrome. J AAPOS. 2008 Aug; 12(4):381-9. View abstract
  73. Congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles. Semin Ophthalmol. 2008 Jan-Feb; 23(1):3-8. View abstract
  74. Magnetic resonance imaging of innervational and extraocular muscle abnormalities in Duane-radial ray syndrome. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007 Dec; 48(12):5505-11. View abstract
  75. Clinical characterization of the HOXA1 syndrome BSAS variant. Neurology. 2007 Sep 18; 69(12):1245-53. View abstract
  76. Three novel mutations in KIF21A highlight the importance of the third coiled-coil stalk domain in the etiology of CFEOM1. BMC Genet. 2007 May 18; 8:26. View abstract
  77. Oculomotility disorders arising from disruptions in brainstem motor neuron development. Arch Neurol. 2007 May; 64(5):633-7. View abstract
  78. Abnormalities of the oculomotor nerve in congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles and congenital oculomotor palsy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007 Apr; 48(4):1601-6. View abstract
  79. Genetic basis of congenital strabismus. Arch Ophthalmol. 2007 Feb; 125(2):189-95. View abstract
  80. Two pedigrees segregating Duane's retraction syndrome as a dominant trait map to the DURS2 genetic locus. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007 Jan; 48(1):189-93. View abstract
  81. Magnetic resonance imaging evidence for widespread orbital dysinnervation in dominant Duane's retraction syndrome linked to the DURS2 locus. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2007 Jan; 48(1):194-202. View abstract
  82. Diffusion tensor MRI shows abnormal brainstem crossing fibers associated with ROBO3 mutations. Neurology. 2006 Aug 08; 67(3):519-21. View abstract
  83. Neurological features of congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles type 2 with mutations in PHOX2A. Brain. 2006 Sep; 129(Pt 9):2363-74. View abstract
  84. HOXA1 mutations are not a common cause of Duane anomaly. . 2006 Apr 15; 140(8):900-2. View abstract
  85. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging demonstrates abnormalities of motor nerves and extraocular muscles in patients with neuropathic strabismus. J AAPOS. 2006 Apr; 10(2):135-42. View abstract
  86. The genetic basis of complex strabismus. Pediatr Res. 2006 Mar; 59(3):343-8. View abstract
  87. Horizontal gaze palsy with progressive scoliosis can result from compound heterozygous mutations in ROBO3. J Med Genet. 2006 Mar; 43(3):e11. View abstract
  88. Homozygous HOXA1 mutations disrupt human brainstem, inner ear, cardiovascular and cognitive development. Nat Genet. 2005 Oct; 37(10):1035-7. View abstract
  89. A novel KIF21A mutation in a patient with congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles and Marcus Gunn jaw-winking phenomenon. Arch Ophthalmol. 2005 Sep; 123(9):1254-9. View abstract
  90. Magnetic resonance imaging evidence for widespread orbital dysinnervation in congenital fibrosis of extraocular muscles due to mutations in KIF21A. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2005 Feb; 46(2):530-9. View abstract
  91. Mutations in KIF21A are responsible for CFEOM1 worldwide. Ophthalmic Genet. 2004 Dec; 25(4):237-9. View abstract
  92. Identification of KIF21A mutations as a rare cause of congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles type 3 (CFEOM3). Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2004 Jul; 45(7):2218-23. View abstract
  93. Mutations in a human ROBO gene disrupt hindbrain axon pathway crossing and morphogenesis. Science. 2004 Jun 04; 304(5676):1509-13. View abstract
  94. Heterozygous mutations of the kinesin KIF21A in congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles type 1 (CFEOM1). Nat Genet. 2003 Dec; 35(4):318-21. View abstract
  95. A novel PHOX2A/ARIX mutation in an Iranian family with congenital fibrosis of extraocular muscles type 2 (CFEOM2). Am J Ophthalmol. 2003 Nov; 136(5):861-5. View abstract
  96. 110th ENMC International Workshop: the congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders (CCDDs). Naarden, The Netherlands, 25-27 October, 2002. Neuromuscul Disord. 2003 Sep; 13(7-8):573-8. View abstract
  97. A Japanese family with FEOM1-linked congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles type 1 associated with spinal canal stenosis and refinement of the FEOM1 critical region. Neuromuscul Disord. 2003 Aug; 13(6):472-8. View abstract
  98. Congenital fibrosis syndrome associated with central nervous system abnormalities. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2003 Jul; 241(7):546-553. View abstract
  99. Acute ataxia in childhood. J Child Neurol. 2003 May; 18(5):309-16. View abstract
  100. Duane radial ray syndrome (Okihiro syndrome) maps to 20q13 and results from mutations in SALL4, a new member of the SAL family. Am J Hum Genet. 2002 Nov; 71(5):1195-9. View abstract
  101. Familial unilateral Brown syndrome. Ophthalmic Genet. 2002 Sep; 23(3):175-84. View abstract
  102. Elevation of one eye during tooth brushing. Am J Ophthalmol. 2002 Sep; 134(3):459-60. View abstract
  103. Genes, brainstem development, and eye movements. Neurology. 2002 Aug 13; 59(3):304-5. View abstract
  104. The molecular basis of the congenital fibrosis syndromes. Strabismus. 2002 Jun; 10(2):125-8. View abstract
  105. Applications of molecular genetics to the understanding of congenital ocular motility disorders. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2002 Apr; 956:55-63. View abstract
  106. Congenital fibrosis of the vertically acting extraocular muscles maps to the FEOM3 locus. Hum Genet. 2002 May; 110(5):510-2. View abstract
  107. CFEOM1, the classic familial form of congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles, is genetically heterogeneous but does not result from mutations in ARIX. BMC Genet. 2002; 3:3. View abstract
  108. Homozygous mutations in ARIX(PHOX2A) result in congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles type 2. Nat Genet. 2001 Nov; 29(3):315-20. View abstract
  109. Congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles associated with cortical dysplasia and maldevelopment of the basal ganglia. Ophthalmology. 2001 Jul; 108(7):1313-22. View abstract
  110. Analysis of human sarcospan as a candidate gene for CFEOM1. BMC Genet. 2001; 2:3. View abstract
  111. Congenital fibrosis syndromes. Int Ophthalmol Clin. 2001; 41(4):105-13. View abstract
  112. A clinically variant fibrosis syndrome in a Turkish family maps to the CFEOM1 locus on chromosome 12. Arch Ophthalmol. 2000 Aug; 118(8):1090-7. View abstract
  113. Evidence of genetic heterogeneity in autosomal recessive congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles. Am J Ophthalmol. 2000 May; 129(5):658-62. View abstract
  114. CFEOM3: a new extraocular congenital fibrosis syndrome that maps to 16q24.2-q24.3. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1999 Jul; 40(8):1687-94. View abstract
  115. A genetic approach to congenital extraocular muscle disorders. J Child Neurol. 1999 Jan; 14(1):34-7. View abstract
  116. Congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles type 2, an inherited exotropic strabismus fixus, maps to distal 11q13. Am J Hum Genet. 1998 Aug; 63(2):517-25. View abstract
  117. Mutilating hand syndrome in an infant with familial carpal tunnel syndrome. Muscle Nerve. 1998 Jan; 21(1):104-11. View abstract
  118. A gene for isolated congenital ptosis maps to a 3-cM region within 1p32-p34.1. Am J Hum Genet. 1997 May; 60(5):1150-7. View abstract
  119. Oculomotor nerve and muscle abnormalities in congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles. Ann Neurol. 1997 Mar; 41(3):314-25. View abstract
  120. Congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles (autosomal dominant congenital external ophthalmoplegia): genetic homogeneity, linkage refinement, and physical mapping on chromosome 12. Am J Hum Genet. 1995 Nov; 57(5):1086-94. View abstract
  121. (CA) repeat polymorphism in the chromosome 18 encoded dystrophin-like protein. Hum Mol Genet. 1994 May; 3(5):841. View abstract
  122. Mapping a gene for congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles to the centromeric region of chromosome 12. Nat Genet. 1994 May; 7(1):69-73. View abstract
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